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Shreya Singhal v. Union of India by GPT4.0

 The case of Shreya Singhal v. Union of India is a landmark judgement by the Supreme Court of India, delivered in 2015, which had a significant impact on the freedom of speech and expression in the context of internet usage in India.


The case was filed in the wake of two young women being arrested in Mumbai under Section 66A of the Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000. Their 'crime' was posting and liking a comment on Facebook that questioned the shutdown in Mumbai following the death of a political leader. This incident led to widespread criticism and raised serious concerns regarding the misuse of legal provisions to curb freedom of expression online.

Legal Issue:

The core issue revolved around the constitutional validity of Section 66A of the IT Act, which provided for the punishment of persons sending 'offensive' messages through communication services. Critics argued that the vague terminology of Section 66A, such as 'annoyance', 'inconvenience', 'danger', 'obstruction', 'insult', 'injury', 'criminal intimidation', 'enmity', 'hatred', or 'ill will', could lead to its misuse and was a threat to the freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution.

Supreme Court Judgment:

- The Supreme Court, in a landmark decision, struck down Section 66A of the IT Act as unconstitutional. 

- The Court held that the vague and ambiguous wording of the section opened it up to arbitrary and whimsical interpretation, thereby making it unconstitutional.

- The judgement emphasised the importance of protecting the freedom of speech and expression in the digital age, stating that such freedom cannot be curtailed unless it falls under the reasonable restrictions enumerated in Article 19(2) of the Constitution.

- It was noted that the provision was not narrowly tailored and thus failed to differentiate between mere discussion or advocacy of a particular point of view, which may be annoying or inconvenient to some, and incitement to commit an offence.

Significance of the Judgment:

1. Protection of Free Speech Online: This judgement was a significant step in protecting free speech on the internet, ensuring that laws could not be used to arbitrarily curb legitimate expression.

2. Clarity on Cyber Laws: The judgement provided much-needed clarity on the scope and limits of laws governing cyberspace in India.

3. Preventing Misuse of Law: By striking down Section 66A, the Supreme Court prevented its misuse against individuals expressing their opinions online, which was becoming increasingly common.

4. Setting a Precedent: The judgement set a precedent for the interpretation of other laws and provisions related to online speech and digital freedoms.


Shreya Singhal v. Union of India is a cornerstone in the jurisprudence relating to freedom of speech and expression in India. It is regarded as a significant victory for civil liberties, particularly in the context of internet and digital rights.

For more detailed information on this case, you can refer to resources like [Indian Kanoon]( or academic articles that discuss its implications and impact.


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